Tuesday, May 3, 2016

Interjection | The most neglected part of speech in Punjab, Pakistan

Let me take the opportunity to break this sad news that Interjection is the most neglected part of speech. Specifically, it's importance is overlooked in the school or colleges of Punjab, Pakistan particularly Rawalpindi.
To my utter surprise, a lecturer of local university has no understanding of this part of speech. She was also at that time preparing for her B.Ed.and totally taken aback with respect to Interjection and it's uses in English language.
So let me give in black and white A to Z of interjections commonly used in the language. However, it is needless to mention here, I am going to give the definition of this part of speech!


Structures with poignant charge and communicative quality utilized in a statement to hint are called interjections or simply, rationally based feelings' descriptors . However, for complete understanding, please read Vladimir Ž. Jovanović paper on "The form, position and meaning of Interjections in English."

 Ack! communicates disgust or dismissal.
 Ah! can denote positive emotions like relief or delight (generally, pronounced with a long a).
 Aha! signals triumph or surprise, or perhaps derision.
 Ahem! is employed to gain attention.
 Argh! often drawn out with additional h’s, is all about frustration.
 Aw! can be dismissive or indicative of disappointment, or, when drawn out, expressive of sympathy or adoration.
 Aye! denotes agreement.

Bah! is dismissive.
Blah! communicates boredom or disappointment.
Blech! (or bleah or bleh) implies nausea.
Boo! is an exclamation to provoke fear.
Boo-hoo! is imitative of crying and is sarcastic.
Boo-ya! (with many spelling variants) is a cry of triumph.
Bwah-hah-hah! (differently spelled, including mwah-hah-hah) jokingly mimics the conventional arch villain’s triumphant laugh.

D’oh! is the spelling for the muttering accompanying Homer Simpson’s trademark head-slapping self-abuse.
Duh! ridicules someone who seems fool.

Eek! indicates an unpleasant surprise.
Eh! with a question mark, is a request for repetition or confirmation of what was just said; without, it is dismissive.
Er! (sometimes erm) plays for time/pause.
Ew! denotes disgust, intensified by the addition of one or more e’s and/or w’s.

Feh! (and its cousin meh) is an indication of feeling underwhelmed or disappointed.

Gak! is an expression of disgust or distaste.

Ha! expresses joy or surprise, or perhaps triumph.
Ha-ha! (with possible redoubling) communicates laughter or derision.
Hamana-hamana! spelled differently, and replicated as needed, means speechless embarrassment.
Hardy-har-har! or har-har! repeated as needed, communicates mock amusement.
Hee-hee! is a mischievous laugh, while its variants heh and heh-heh (and so on) can have a more derisive connotation.
Hey! can express surprise or exultation, or can be used to request repetition or call for attention.
Hist! signals the desire for silence.
Hm! extended as needed, suggests curiosity, confusion, consternation, or skepticism.
Hmph! (also hrmph or humph) indicates displeasure or indignation.
Ho-ho! is expressive of mirth, or (along with its variant oh-ho) can indicate triumph of discovery.
Ho-hum! signals indifference or boredom.
Hubba-hubba! is the vocal equivalent of a smile.
Huh! (or hunh) is a sign of disbelief, confusion, or surprise, or, with a question mark, is a request for repetition.
Hup! from the sound-off a military cadence chant, signals beginning an exerting task.
Hurrah! (also hoorah, hooray, and hurray, and even huzzah) is an exclamation of triumph or happiness.

Ick! signals disgust.

Lah-de-dah! denotes nonchalance or dismissal, or derision about pretension.

Mm-hmm! variously spelled, is an affirmative or confirming response.
Mmm! extended as needed, conveys palatable or palpable pleasure.
Mwah! is suggestive of a kiss, often implying unctuous or exaggerated affection.

Neener-neener! often uttered in a series of three repetitions, is a taunt.
Now! (often repeated “Now, now”) is uttered as an caution.
Oh is among the most versatile of interjections. Use it to indicate comprehension or acknowledgment (or, with a question mark, a request for verification), to preface direct address (“Oh, sir!”), as a sign of approximation or example (“Oh, about three days”), or to express emotion or serves as a response to a pain or pleasure. (Ooh is a variant useful for the last two purposes.)

Oh-oh! (or alternatives in which oh is followed by various words) is a warning response to something that will have negative repercussions.
Olé! with an accent mark over the e, is borrowed from Spanish and is a vocal flourish to celebrate a smart or adroit scheme.
Ooh! with o’s repeated as needed, conveys interest or admiration, or, alternatively, disdain.
Ooh-la-la! is a response to an attempt to impress or gently mocks pretension or finery.
Oops! (and the jocular diminutive variation oopsie or oopsy and the variant whoops) calls attention to an error or fault.
Ouch! (or ow, extended as needed) signals pain or is a response to a harsh word or action.
Oy! part of Yiddish expressions such as oy gevalt (equivalent to “Uh-oh”), is a lament of frustration, concern, or self-pity.

Pff! extended as needed, expresses disappointment, disdain, or annoyance.
Pfft! or phfft! communicates abrupt ending or departure or is a sardonic dismissal akin to pff.
Phew! or pew, communicates disgust, fatigue, or relief. (Phooey, also spelled pfui, is a signal for disgust, too, and can denote dismissal as well. PU and P.U. are also variants.)
Poof! is imitative of a sudden disappearance, as if by magic.
Pooh! is a contemptuous exclamation.
Pshaw! denotes disbelief, disapproval, or irritation or, alternatively, communicates facetious self-consciousness.
Psst! calls for quiet.

Rah! perhaps repeated, signals triumph.

Shh! (extended as necessary) is an imperative for silence.
Sis boom bah! is an outdated encouraging cry, most likely to be used mockingly now.

Tchah! communicates annoyance.
Tsk-tsk! and its even snootier variant tut-tut are condemnations or scoldings; the related sound tch is the teeth-and-tongue click of disapproval.

Ugh! is an exclamation of disgust.

Uh! is an expression of skepticism or a delaying tactic.
Uh-huh! indicates affirmation or agreement.
Uh-oh! signals concern or dismay.
Uh-uh! is the sound of negation or refusal.

Um! is a placeholder for a pause but also denotes disbelief.

Va-va-voom! is an old-fashioned exclamation denoting admiration of physical attractiveness.

Whee! is an exclamation of excitement or delight.

Whew! is a variant of phew but can also express amazement.

Whoa! is a call to halt or an exclamation of surprise or relief.
Whoop-de-doo! and its many variants convey mocking reaction to something meant to impress.
Woo! and woo-hoo (and variations like yahoo, yee-haw, and yippee) indicate excitement. (Woot, also spelled w00t among an online in-crowd, is a probably ephemeral variant.)
Wow! expresses surprise.

Yay! is a congratulatory exclamation. (Not to be confused with yeah, a variant of yes.)
Yikes! is an expression of fright or unease, often used jokily.
Yo-ho-ho! is the traditional pirates’ refrain.
Yoo-hoo! attracts attention.
Yow! or yowza! is an exclamation of surprise or conveys being impressed.
Yuck! (also spelled yech or yecch) indication of aversion. (Not to be confused with yuk, a laugh.)
Yum! or yummy! is a response to the taste of something delicious and, by extension, the sight of an attractive person.

Zoinks! is an expression of surprise or admiration famous due to a cartoon character Shaggy, of Scooby Doo fame.
Zowie! often in combination following wowie, a variant of wow, expresses admiration or astonishment.

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